Deepak Meshram, Khushbo Bhardwaj, Charulata Rathod, Gail B. Mahady and Kapil K. Soni* Pages 15 - 31 ( 17 )
Background: Leukotrienes are powerful mediators of inflammation and interact with specific receptors in target cell membrane to initiate an inflammatory response. Thus, Leukotrienes (LTs) are considered to be potent mediators of inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Leukotriene B4 and the series of cysteinyl leukotrienes (C4, D4, and E4) are metabolites of arachidonic acid metabolism that cause inflammation. The cysteinyl LTs are known to increase vascular permeability, bronco-constriction and mucus secretion.
Objectives: To review the published data for leukotriene inhibitors of plant origin and the recent patents for leukotriene inhibitors, as well as their role in the management of inflammatory diseases.
Methods: Published data for leukotrienes antagonists of plant origin were searched from 1938 to 2019, without language restrictions using relevant keywords in both free text and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) format. Literature and patent searches in the field of leukotriene inhibitors were carried out by using numerous scientific databases including Science Direct, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Patents, US Patents, US Patent Applications, Abstract of Japan, German Patents, European Patents, WIPO and NAPRALERT. Finally, data from these information resources were analyzed and reported in the present study.
Results: Currently, numerous anti-histaminic medicines are available including chloropheneremine, brompheniramine, cetirizine, and clementine. Furthermore, specific leukotriene antagonists from allopathic medicines are also available including zileuton, montelukast, pranlukast and zafirlukast and are considered effective and safe medicines as compared to the first generation medicines. The present study reports leukotrienes antagonistic agents of natural products and certain recent patents that could be an alternative medicine in the management of inflammation in respiratory diseases.
Conclusion: The present study highlights recent updates on the pharmacology and patents on leukotriene antagonists in the management of inflammation respiratory diseases.
Allergy, antagonists, asthma, cyclooxygenase, inflammation, leukotrienes, rhinitis, secondary metabolites.
Pharmacogenomics Lab., Department of Biosciences, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (MP) 462026, Pharmacogenomics Lab., Department of Biosciences, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (MP) 462026, Department of Zoology, Government P.G. College, BHEL, Bhopal (MP) 462022, Clinical Pharmacognosy Lab., Department of Pharmacy Practice, PAHO, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, Pharmacogenomics Lab., Department of Biosciences, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (MP) 462026